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the girl with violets in her lap [userpic]

January 6th, 2011 (11:24 am)

current mood: thoughtful

When I was in tenth grade, Huckleberry Finn was on my English Honors curriculum. I'm pretty sure that it was the first day that the book was assigned that our teacher distributed an essay by a black academic who was arguing for the purging of Huck Finn from high school curricula, or, at the least, the censoring of it to remove the N-word. I don't remember a lot of her argument, because we weren't encouraged to consider it closely. Instead, the teacher asked us to read it, and then spent more than one class period vociferating about how terrible this idea was and how wrong this scholar, and everyone who argued against Huck Finn this way, was. Her point was the same that you and I have heard a thousand times since then, and which I personally agree with in principle: the repeated usage of the N-word in Huck Finn is an integral part of the language and social mores of the time, and an important thing to acknowledge and study. Forgetting, or erasing, the past is not the way to move beyond it. We know this. It seems so simple, so clear-cut. Certainly it seemed so to my tenth-grade English teacher. She was truly derisive in her response to the article, and to other points of view that she claimed she had encountered but that I'm not sure she wasn't making up for effect. When she said that a student had asked her the previous year, "Why didn't Huck just call Jim African-American?", well, I'm not sure that ever happened. Possibly the student was asking why the text of the book hadn't been changed such that Huck would call Jim African-American. But that student's question, as she recounted it, gave her a good springboard to explain why Huck wouldn't have used or perhaps even known any other words by which to refer to Jim. From there she moved to the main thrust of her argument, which was that focusing on this one word and taking it out of context led to a complete misreading of the book's purpose, which was anti-racist. In this I agree with her as well.

She opened it up to class discussion. It was a good class, and a vocal one. There may have been some students who argued a middle course, but I don't remember them. Mostly I remember the students who, like me, thought this was the most ridiculous thing ever, and who weren't shy about saying so. It was the kind of discussion that is always enjoyable -- the kind where you're positive that you're right, and everyone else is positive that you're right, and you're positive that they're right, and you get to go around talking about how right you all are and generally congratulating one another for your intellectual and moral acuity.

There was just one kid in the class who didn't agree. He was one of the few black kids in the room, the only black male, and, I believe, the only black kid in the room who'd grown up in a rough area of the city. He was a nice kid and a smart kid, but his argument didn't go over well in that class. He said he agreed with everything in the article we'd been given. That black kids shouldn't be made to read that word 200-whatever times in one book for school. That it hurt every time he saw it, and that he didn't think white people could understand the way that it hurt.

This, as I said, was pooh-poohed. He was misinterpreting it completely, he was told. The teacher explained why he was wrong. Another student in the classroom was particularly vociferous about it. He said all the same things other students were saying, but he said them loud, and often, this great articulate hurricane of passion and disdain. He was kind of a BMOC in the brainiac circles at my high school, good-looking and charismatic and outspoken, driven and dedicated but not averse to copying homework and take-homes from time to time (or more than time to time) either. His Huck Finn tirades were some of his more memorable. The next year, when my English class discussed Merchant of Venice and the objections to it/demands for its censorship based on its anti-Semitism, that student was likewise vociferous in his opinion that it was inappropriate to teach in schools. He was Jewish. I guess that made a difference to him. I will never forget the moment when another student in the class finally called him out by asking his opinion of the Huck Finn debate: "It's hard to say," he said, suddenly scholarly rather than passionate, all but stroking his chin. Incidentally, in college he considered an African-American Studies major -- I don't know if he carried that out, but I do know he's working for President Obama now. Interesting guy.*

Anyway, so he was the most vocal opponent of the kid -- let's call him Matthew here -- who thought Huck Finn should be censored or left off the curriculum. Matthew tried to keep his argument going, but it wasn't much use. Oddly, I actually remember turning my opinion around a little bit when I heard Matthew speak. I was in general a really conservative, black-and-white-minded person in high school -- kind of a brat, if I'm being honest -- but I guess even then I didn't like to judge other people or tell them their feelings were invalid right to their faces. And, honestly, I did know that I just did not know what it was like to be black. So I remember saying in class that I really didn't think that we white kids could understand what it was like for Matthew to see that word so often, that we didn't know the effect it could have. He thanked me, looking both startled and relieved to have someone on his side. Of course I went on to explain why that didn't mean the book should be censored, but whatever. At least I wasn't hurricaning all over him. In my memory. I hope he'd remember it the same way.

At the end of the class our teacher gave us our main assignment for the book: we were to write a paper assessing the black scholar's article and explaining why it was wrong. After class, Matthew went up to her and asked if he could write a paper assessing the article and explaining why he agreed with it. She pondered this for a second, then said no. He had to learn to argue convincingly even for points he disagreed with, she said. I didn't think this was fair, because no one else in the class had to learn this, and it just seemed too goddamn sensitive a topic to use for the purpose. Honestly, I was pretty pissed on his behalf by then.

Later that day, I had gym class with Matthew. We had a few minutes before the class started, and he and I were friendly, so I went and sat down beside him. "Hey," I said, "I just wanted to let you know I'm sorry about how English class went today. Ms. Bernstein was really out of line."

"Right? Thanks," he said.

"I think I understand where you're coming from..." I said, and then felt my cheeks flaming up. "I mean, I know I don't understand where you're coming from, obviously I don't understand, I mean, I can't understand, but I think I... I mean, I get... what you mean?" I was very graceful.

"Yeah... thanks," he said, after a pause. We sat there for a moment, uncomfortable.

"Hey, Elizabeth!" he said, all of a sudden, jumping up to wave to a friend of his -- a black girl. I watched as he ran over, hugged her, and then settled in with a group of black kids across the room. As in the lunchroom, kids tended to separate themselves out by race in the bleachers before gym class. I watched him go and felt a horrible sense of failure. He was a good guy, I liked him, and at that moment the racial barrier felt high as the Berlin Wall. I felt, probably not inaccurately, that I had done the lion's share of building it up that high in the course of our conversation.

To this day I've never totally shaken the sense of failure, and of awkwardness and helplessness, that that conversation carried. But I wrote the Huck Finn paper easily and got a good grade on it. I suspect Matthew did not write it nearly as easily, and that he did not get as good a grade.

At the end of the day, I am still opposed to the censoring of Huckleberry Finn. I do believe that it's impossible to read a book like that out of the context of its times, and that replacing the N-word (especially with "slave", which has not just a different connotation but a different meaning) jerks it right out of its context. I think that the repetition of the N-word is of course problematic, but that it should be taught, and the discussion should be had.

But it shouldn't be had the way that it was had in my tenth-grade English class. Or, I'd venture to say, the way it is being had in most public venues, blogs and Twitter and the mainstream media, right now. There is a reason that many black students say they hate this book or can barely stand to read it. There is a reason that it perpetuates so much outrage. The N-word, and the history it's a part of, just flat-out hurts for a whole lot of people, and if you can read the book with ease, you're not one of them. And if you can read the book with ease, it's not for you to dismiss the objections offhand.

What I worry about most is the fact that when the N-word is included in that book, all 200-whatever instances of it, the book either does not get assigned or else the students that it would hurt don't read it. We talk about how we have to teach the book because we have to understand this chapter of our history, and that's completely true, but we can't force it down people's throats -- I don't just mean we shouldn't, but I mean that we literally cannot. And I can't help wondering if it might not be best to publish an alternative, non-default version of the book that replaces the N-word, not with "slave" -- that word was clearly chosen in an attempt to use something that carries no pejorative associations at all today, and I think that it's absolutely ludicrous -- but something like "darky" or "colored", or even "negro", the N-word's parent, none of which would have been anachronistic and all of which convey some of our racist past without reading with quite the same hard slap in the face that the N-word does. Students who feel very strongly that they can't or won't read the version with the N-word could request a copy of the censored version.

I am not a fan of censorship, but I am a fan of people reading Huckleberry Finn. The book would be taught as usual; the kids would know there was a debate, know the N-word was present throughout, hopefully be taught why Twain would have used it. It's just that if a student comes up to you and tells you that seeing the N-word several times to a page is so upsetting and infuriating that they can't stand to read the book, I think it's better to give them another way to read it than to tell them to suck it up.

I'm not saying this is the best solution ever. I'm not even sure it's better than just assigning the book as is, to be honest. I do know that the existence of the N-word in that book can't be ignored. But the effects it has today can't be ignored, either. It's all part of the same troubled history, and I worry about what happens if we don't teach that history at all -- as some schools do not; Huck Finn has been dropped from many curricula, as noted -- because the worst of it sometimes seems too hot to handle.

I don't know if there was anything productive, in the end, in Matthew's being forced to read that book when he didn't want to, and being forced to swallow -- in fact, to voice -- an opinion he didn't agree with. I think in his case, he might have learned more from being able to read a version without that word in it. Maybe we all would have learned more if that option had been made available. More about trying to understand the racial divide in this country, rather than yelling at it.

I wish I still knew Matthew so I could ask him what he thought, today, with 15 years between now and that day that Ms. Bernstein made him read a book that it was painful for him to read and write a paper that it offended him to write. I wonder if he got anything out of it. I wonder if what he got out of it was anything good.

I wonder.


*I actually liked him, and still do, but man, blind spots.


Posted by: Damian (fanboy_of_zeus)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 04:49 pm (UTC)

We read Huck Finn in 11th grade. If there was any discussion at all of the problematic language, it was completely overshadowed by the wave of fury over the teacher assigning more than a hundred pages of reading with the equivalent of sixteen paragraphs' worth of WRITTEN discussion questions over Thanksgiving (in violation of school policy, no written homework over the holiday). I would have gotten so much more out of reading it for class if the controversy had been addressed. As it was for me - and as it will be for those who read it with the controversy removed - it was just another book, and not even a particularly good one.

It might be less painful to read, and I'd support your idea of giving kids the option of an alternative version, but...censoring it defeats the whole purpose of teaching it at all. Or at least a significant portion of the purpose.

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 04:59 pm (UTC)

Absolutely. I do agree with you there. I just had thought that if kids were given the option of choosing the version sans N-word, they would by definition be aware of the controversy and what it was about, and would additionally have to have given it some consideration. I think it could become part of the debate/discussion, and if the discussion is being had, then the rest of Huck Finn remains worth reading (I actually don't agree that it's not a very good book, but I think it has to be taught as part of its times, not just culturally but from a literary standpoint; so much of what Twain was doing, from the vernacular down to the style of satire he was using, was brand new in America, and since then it's been imitated and altered and reframed until in places it does feel hackneyed and trite unless taken in the context of its era). I don't think that that much of the meaning of the book is lost by substituting in, say, "darky", *provided that* the students are aware that they are reading a censored version, that they chose the censored version because they are (all too) aware of the power of the original language, and the original language is discussed in class. Giving the option might even necessitate that discussion in a school like yours, where it seems like the issue was ignored by default. If so, that would be all to the good.

With all that said, I don't have a very strong rebuttal for people who would just say flat-out that censoring the book completely subverts the purpose. Hell, I retweeted that thing about "next let's rewrite Anne Frank's Diary without the Holocaust" the other night, before I really got to thinking about that class discussion way back in tenth grade. I wish I could agree with that flat-out, or that I could support the argument I myself am making here flat-out. I feel like it's uncomfortably difficult to come down on one side or the other, for me. ::sigh::

Edited at 2011-01-06 05:00 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Damian (fanboy_of_zeus)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 05:09 pm (UTC)

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 05:19 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Damian (fanboy_of_zeus)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 05:33 pm (UTC)

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 05:54 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Damian (fanboy_of_zeus)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:11 pm (UTC)

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:27 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Damian (fanboy_of_zeus)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 07:09 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Underwear Ninja (chavvah)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 05:44 pm (UTC)
last turnoff before Canada

Huckleberry Finn wasn't on our curriculum when I was a kid--not because of censorship, but because of nationality.

In grade 7, we read a book called Underground to Canada which dealt with many of the same themes regarding slavery (and which also uses the N-word) but in a way that was more relevant to us and our cultural experience.

What do you think about the idea of students being presented with a selection of books on similar themes--from different perspectives and using different language--and being asked to choose one and write about it? They don't have to like it, necessarily, they just have to read it and write about it and go through that process of engaging with literature. And they get to hear about the other books through class discussion, so that they are learning a little bit about the ones they didn't read while still feeling as though they have some agency in the assignment.

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:09 pm (UTC)

I think that's a good idea. Perhaps with relevant excerpts from each presented to the class. In that case I think a representative sample from Huck could include the N-word without causing too much distress. I definitely had the sense, both from Matthew and from the article that I read, that a lot of the problem was reading the word *so many times* in what is really quite a short book. Anyway, I'm always for students getting to have more of a choice in what they study, as it gets them more actively involved.

Posted by: Morgan (banshea)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:14 pm (UTC)

Posted by: telepresence (telepresence)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 05:47 pm (UTC)

I think censoring or altering the book is a terrible idea. I cannot express strongly enough how bad an idea I think it is. And I say that as a black person who went from an all black school to often being the only POC at my mostly white prep school I transferred to in high school. I also say this as someone who suffers from occasional severe panic attacks and can be "triggered" by various things, even up to hospitalization. The drive to protect everyone from being triggered by anything ever is really misguided, I feel.

I think for every 1 kid it helps to not upset or offend, 1000 people who'd like to make the problematic aspects of American history go away are comforted and coddled.

One of the most frustrating aspects of trying to talk about racism for me is the notion that racism is this think that happened in the past. And now we're going to clean up the past as well? It robs the discussion of context and documentation. Our understanding of the sociological history of this country is already terrible, let's not muddy the waters further with well meaning but bad efforts to make a nice PG rated Huck Fin.

Frankly, though I like Twain, I'm not sure the rest of the book is such a literary masterpiece that it's worth learning about at the cost of censoring it. I'm not willing to make that trade-off at all, not any more than I'd be willing to take sex or homosexuality out of a book to make it more palatable to conservatives.

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:05 pm (UTC)

Interesting. As mentioned before, I can't say that I totally disagree. I'm remembering back to how the discussion went down in my own class and how no one seemed uncomfortable with it except the one black kid who got shouted down and forced to endorse others' point of view -- no one in our class needed comforting or coddling, but I think you're right that a whole lot of people would find it that way. I mean, the guy who censored it said as much (that he didn't want to read the N-word in class). What would you think about the option of allowing kids who say they will be upset by it to read a different version -- or, perhaps, a different book altogether, something that seems to fit well with the unit that's being taught but that isn't littered with the N-word? There's also the option of a critical version, with or without secondary censored text, as mentioned above. I don't know, I'm just wondering how common experiences like Matthew's are, and if they ought to be taken into account. Whatever happens, I think that the way it was taught in our class, which was basically "this is the way they talked back then [back then! as if it's not at all relevant now], Huck isn't racist at all," is bogus. I wish I didn't think it was being taught that way in a lot of schools, but I do.

Posted by: electric misfit love machine (eyelid)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:47 pm (UTC)

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:56 pm (UTC)

Posted by: electric misfit love machine (eyelid)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 07:13 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Erin (givesmevoice)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:37 pm (UTC)
Pan's Labyrinth somewhere I have never

I'm really happy to find that you wrote an entry on this. I've been vaguely noodling on the topic, but haven't really been able to come up with anything past "Books shouldn't be censored." I think telepresence put it very well (and if this was facebook, I would like that comment so hard), and I have to say that might be the school of thought I subscribe to.

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:54 pm (UTC)

I agree with the statement that books shouldn't be censored, too -- but in general, people also aren't forced to read books. Censoring usually makes books unavailable across-the-board to people who want to read them, and that, I think, is -- well, not the worst of it, because if it wasn't inherently wrong then the lack of availability wouldn't matter as much -- but it's one of the defining bad things. So if we're forcing kids to read the book, I think the question shifts a bit... I don't know. My whole perspective is clouded by how mad I am at how Matthew was treated in that class when he tried to bring another perspective into the discussion.

Anyway. I don't even disagree with people who are adamantly opposed to the censorship of the book. I think maybe I just got uncomfortable because I haven't seen anybody talking about why anyone would want to censor the book in the first place, and it was reminding me of that tenth-grade English class. Ultimately I'd say censoring the book isn't the answer -- I think other suggestions brought up in this thread make far more sense, and it's good to be having the discussion because it's refining my point of view. I wasn't that comfortable saying the text should be censored tbh, I just also wasn't sure that leaving it as is and trusting that it will be taught in a nonproblematic context was the best idea either. A default critical edition, a variety of options -- both better ideas, and there are probably more.

Posted by: electric misfit love machine (eyelid)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 06:54 pm (UTC)

As a Jew, I think Merchant of Venice should definitely be taught. It just needs to be taught well.

A good teacher could focus on the anti-semitism, point out the blatant, terrible hypocrisy of the Christian characters, and discuss Shylock as a sympathetic character. A good teacher would discuss the age-old question of whether Shakespeare was really writing a vicious anti-semetic creed - or whether he was trying to subtly make a point AGAINST anti-semitism.

I think that Merchant is a great text for showing anti-semetic attitudes and the hypocrisy involved in those attitudes. It's hard for me to read - but frankly it should be hard for EVERYONE to read. A good teacher should make it an even harder text to read.

I believe similar things about Huck Finn. We shouldn't whitewash history, we should address it, even if that is painful for us. We need to do it in a way that is empathetic and sympathetic, and that's where your teacher failed terribly. I just think Huck Finn is a terrible book, so I have trouble with the idea that kids should be reading it at all :)

(Deleted comment)
Posted by: Morgan (banshea)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 11:24 pm (UTC)

My memories of how this was handled in my English class are a bit hazy, but I recall my teacher saying that, yes, we were going to read some very offensive words, but that whenever we read passages aloud we were permitted to censor ourselves. (I can't remember if this was "only to the point that you are comfortable" or "we will never say the N-word out loud".) We tended to just say the letter whenever we encountered the word. I remember it working quite well in a school with a lot of racial tension.

Posted by: Nathaniel Wolfthorn (ganimede)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 07:37 pm (UTC)

I didn't read the book at school, I read it on my own at home. I wasn't very old and so the entire racism aspect and any words pertaining to that passed me by. I just saw it as a piece of fiction about a place and a time in the past that had no similarity to the time and place I lived in.

We don't have banned books in the UK. I had no idea that there was even any controversy about Huck Finn. I find the concept of a government deciding what books its people can read to be completely baffling, especially for one that goes on about its rights so much... As Mark Twain himself said, "You perceive that for me to presume to indicate the hundred authors which a person ought to read, would be folly."

I think you might find this article interesting, someone linked to it on my Twitter feed earlier.

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 07:50 pm (UTC)

Well, to be fair, I don't think the government has anything to do with this. The censored version of the book would be available for use in public schools, but so would any other book. The determination of what's used in any particular school is made by either the school itself or by the wider school system for the region. The guy just decided to do it because he thought teachers would want to have it be available, and last I heard no schools had actually ordered any copies, but chain stores like Barnes and Noble and Borders had ordered some (which would be shelved alongside the real version; I can't imagine they wouldn't order something that's gotten this much publicity). I'm not a fan of America in a lot of ways, but one thing I am proud of is how fiercely we guard our right to freedom of speech. It's ironic because I tend to be proud of our protecting some truly horrific things, like Fred Phelps & Co. But to me, that's where the real test of a country's commitment to freedom of speech lies. Huck Finn is being censored by an individual in this case, not by the government. I would be pissed to fuck and gone if any government agency gave the slightest hint of censoring that book and removing it from public circulation.

With that said, the controversy that happens around "banned books" in the U.S. is about books that have been removed from school libraries at parents' request due to material they find offensive. Sometimes that happens with public libraries as well. In both of those cases, however, the determination of what to carry is at the library's discretion, since obviously they can't carry every book in the world, so it becomes a question of the merits of the book and whether they are significant enough for the library to stock them. It's when parents or other adults (usually conservative) start protesting a book because they think their kids shouldn't read it due to controversial material that the "banned books" debate arises. For the record, I *hate* it when that shit goes down. To me, taking a book out of a library so that kids don't have access to it is a much worse form of censorship than providing an edited version and making both available. And yet there's no legal way to provide for which books a library should stock and which it shouldn't. It's all messy, but at least the government isn't banning books.

I also expect to write some banned books in the future. So I'm a little biased. ;)

Posted by: Nathaniel Wolfthorn (ganimede)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 08:09 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Greetings Fellow Comstoks! (fengi)
Posted at: January 6th, 2011 07:56 pm (UTC)
Tom Sawyer would love the defense of Huck Finn.

Here's what puzzles me: Why is that book so ubiquitous?

I like Huckleberry Finn, I think it's a classic, but for me it seems odd how tenaciously it occupies its spot on the curriculum. There are a lot of books worth teaching to high schoolers, and even if one sticks to the Traditional White Guy Canon, including Mark Twain, one could easily skip over Finn.

I'd argue it is because of the n-word, and the attending thrill of controversy and debate, not despite it that white teachers the nation over continue to cling to it. It's a cheap way to make an alleged point about race and words, except defined by white folk knowing best. It's also a free pass to trangress, wallow around in a taboo word with high minded sanction of classical tradition. Which, bullshit. At this point telling black kids to suck it up about Huck Finn is the very civilization Twain was commenting on.

In fact, the character who would most enjoy the whole "teach Huck Finn" schema is Tom Sawyer, y'know, the one in the book who withholds information about Jim being freed so he can enjoy a thrilling escape which nearly results in death.

Posted by: Amy (amyura)
Posted at: January 7th, 2011 01:46 am (UTC)
Re: Tom Sawyer would love the defense of Huck Finn.

I thought this whole post and comments thread was great, but I think this is the best comment (in a sea of awesome comments, too).

Posted by: Tasha Rebekah Martin (lietya)
Posted at: January 7th, 2011 04:17 pm (UTC)

(I appear, late, with a link to a different blog. This is me being helpful. :) http://jimhines.livejournal.com/547402.html But I have to say, I kind of like his approach even better - although yours is a decent compromise - because it allows for a solution that tends to be overlooked when the basic assumption is that middle-to-high-school kids MUST read it. It also essentially still boils down to letting people make a choice whether to read it, since at the college level someone could potentially opt out of a class that would include it [and probably have more flexibility to ask for an alternate reading].)

(As an aside, now I'm somewhere between horrified and embarrassed that I never caught the "injun" issue being overlooked, either. In fact, I had no idea this publisher WAS altering that too.)

Posted by: the girl with violets in her lap (slammerkinbabe)
Posted at: January 7th, 2011 04:48 pm (UTC)

Wow, that is a truly great article. When I got to his saying "We can argue that the book provides an opportunity to have a painfully honest discussion about history and race and racism, but how many teachers are truly qualified to moderate such a discussion and make it a positive experience for all students?" I all but cheered. That's been my point all along -- if you could teach it sans racefail it would be so valuable, but how the hell do you ensure that it will be taught sans racefail? Honestly, I think he's right to say that perhaps it's best read in college. And at *that* point the course is clear. The guy who censored it said that it might be of use (because, paraphrasing, he thought it might "still make students uncomfortable") into college and *grad school*. Can you imagine being a grad student in English language or American studies and reading a censored text because you were afraid of the language in it? This is why, even though I would tentatively endorse an optional censored version (particularly if included at the end of a complete critical text, together with the real text and essays from both sides of the debate), I think the particular guy who censored it is full of crap. I started rereading the book last night and substituting in "slave" doesn't even make any logical sense. There's a whole paragraph at the beginning where Huck's dad is ranting about a "free n*gger" who's allowed to vote and can't be sold into slavery until he's been in Mississippi for six months. A free slave who can vote and can't be sold into slavery? What? What in the hell is a free slave?

Posted by: Tasha Rebekah Martin (lietya)
Posted at: January 7th, 2011 04:56 pm (UTC)

Posted by: Yes, I Have One (supremegoddess1)
Posted at: January 7th, 2011 08:55 pm (UTC)

Very well articulated.

Posted by: Isaac Kelley (moondispatches)
Posted at: January 8th, 2011 09:20 pm (UTC)

Great post.
I'm not in favor of sanitizing history, but dang, that teacher of yours missed the point by a mile.

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